Outputs / SARMa Glossary

SARMa Glossary



1 - Aggregate granular or particulate material, either naturally occurring (sand and gravel) or produced by crushing (crushed rock) which, when brought together in a bound (with cement, lime or bitumen) or unbound condition, is used in construction to form part or whole of a building or civil engineering structure. Also referred to as ‘construction aggregates’ and used mainly as concrete, mortar, roadstone, asphalt or drainage courses, or for use as constructional fill or railway ballast.

A mass or body of rock particles, mineral grains or a mixture of both. Any of several hard, inert materials that can be mixed with a cement or bituminous material to form concrete, mortar, or plaster, or used alone, as in railroad ballast or graded fill.
See also: Natural Aggregate, Recycled Aggregate; Manufactured Aggregate

Aggregates Intelligence System – combination of databases, digital maps, analytical tools and expertise to support informed decision making with respect to sustainable aggregates resource management and the selection of a sustainable aggregates supply mix.


Best practices
13 - Methods and techniques that have consistently shown results superior to those achieved with other means, and which are used as benchmarks, i.e., standards against which actions are judged. There is, however, no practice that is best for everyone or in every situation, and no best practice remains best for very long as people keep on finding better ways of doing things.


C&D waste management
Construction and demolition waste management

Civil society
13 - Incorporated association, charitable trust, foundation, society, etc., that is operated as a non-profit organization. If any profit is earned by a civil society, it can be saved or spent but cannot be distributed among its founders, members, trustees, etc.

Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society, as distinct from the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that state's political system) and commercial institutions of the market.

13 - Definition 1: General: Clearing, dredging, excavating, and grading of land and other activity associated with buildings, structures, or other types of real property such as bridges, dams, roads.
13 - Definition 2: Law: Construing, discovering, inferring, and interpreting the intention, meaning, and/or significance of a document, instrument, or statement.

Crushed stone
Rock, boulders and cobbles that are blasted or mined and subsequently crushed and processed into aggregate.


Deposit characteristics
Physical properties, sedimentary features, quality, particle gradation and composition of a deposit.

Deposit model
A planning model that includes the geological feature that makes up the sand and gravel (e.g.,
Delta, alluvial terrace, outwash plain, drumlin), the deposit characteristic (e.g., rock types, rock characteristics), the deposit size (e.g., surface area, depth) and environmental effects of mining (e.g., high clay content).


13 - Management philosophy that aims at minimizing ecological impact / damage while maximizing efficiency of the firm's production processes, such as through the lesser use of energy, material, and water, more recycling, and elimination of [hazardous] emissions or by-products.

Energy efficiency
32 - The approach of utilizing technologies and measures that reduce the amount of energy/electricity used to perform the same function, e.g. using energy efficient fluorescent light bulbs in an office

1 - Extraction involves removing material from the ground and delivering it to a production plant in a form suitable for processing; it is also referred to mining as well as quarrying.

Extractive waste (or mining waste)
24 - Waste resulting from the prospecting, extraction, treatment and storage of mineral resources and the working of quarries



Gravel is a non-coherent natural, detrital, mineral aggregate from natural disintegration of rock, consisting mainly of rounded pebbles for sub-angular rock fragments, or both. Usually occurs as part of a "sand & gravel" deposit. Fragment size between 2mm and 60mm.



Illegal quarrying
Illegal quarrying are all activities related to quarry extraction that are carried out without all mandatory permissions or outside of national financial or taxation regulations.

Information infrastructure
17 - The term information infrastructure (II) refers to the communications networks and associated software that support interaction among people and organizations.

14 - A nation's basic system of transportation, communication, and other aspects of its physical plant. Building and maintaining road, bridge, sewage, and electrical systems provides millions of jobs nationwide. For developing countries, building an infrastructure is a first step in economic development. For developed nations, maintenance of infrastructure supports the continued functioning of the economy.



Land use planning
14 - An activity, generally conducted by a local government that provides public and private land use recommendations consistent with community policies and public preferences. Generally is used to guide decisions on zoning.

13 - Definition 2: Process through which statutes are enacted by a legislative body (such as a parliament), established and empowered by the country constitution to do so.

Life cycle analysis
36 - Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a process of compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle.
8 - A total valuation of a process, in which all the inputs and outcomes of a reaction are fully considered.
16 - Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a process of evaluating the effects that a product has on the environment over the entire period of its life thereby increasing resource-use efficiency and decreasing liabilities. It can be used to study the environmental impact of either a product or the function the product is designed to perform. LCA is commonly referred to as a "cradle-to-grave" analysis. LCA's key elements are: (1) identify and quantify the environmental loads involved; e.g. the energy and raw materials consumed, the emissions and wastes generated; (2) evaluate the potential environmental impacts of these loads; and (3) assess the options available for reducing these environmental impacts.


13 - Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money.

Manufactured aggregate
Aggregate produced from industrial activities as processing or re-processing of waste, by-products and residues.


Natural aggregate
Aggregate from mineral resources which has been subjected to nothing more than mechanical processing.

Natural asset
18 - Natural assets are assets of the natural environment. These consist of biological assets (produced or wild), land and water areas with their ecosystems, subsoil assets and air.

Natural resource
13 - Asset or material that constitutes the natural capital (inorganic and organic material) of a nation. Some types of natural resources, such as minerals, require application of capital and human resources (mental and physical labor) to be exploited (extracted, processed, refined) for the realization of their economic value. Other natural resources, such as a cave system, may be assigned economic or non-economic value based on their existence, without the application of human and physical capital.

9 - Nongovernmental organization



An open-surface working area from which a mineral resource is extracted, in this case sand and gravel.

13 - Definition 1: Governmental: (1) Basic principles by which a government is guided. (2) Declared objectives which a government seeks to achieve and preserve in the interest of national community.
13 - Definition 3: Organizational: Set of basic principles and associated guidelines, formulated and enforced by the governing body of an organization, to direct and limit its actions in pursuit of long-term goals.

25 - The time period following the shutdown of a quarry, waste management or manufacturing facility; for monitoring purposes, often considered to be 30 years.


1 - A quarry is any surface working where aggregates [minerals] are extracted. It may also be referred to as a surface mine, open pit or opencast mine; as opposed to a mine, which is defined in the UK as an underground working.
5 - An open surface working, from which virgin rock is extracted.
6 - Any site that is used for the extraction of rock from bedrock to be used for construction purposes.

Quarry life cycle (mine life cycle)
33 – Quarry life cycle enhances all activities from exploration, development, operation / production, closure, and post-closure phases.


23 - Any operation the principal result of which is waste serving a useful purpose by replacing other materials which would otherwise have been used to fulfill a particular function, or waste being prepared to fulfill that function, in the plant or in the wider economy.

36 - A resource recovery method involving the collection and treatment of a waste product for use as raw material in the manufacture of the same or a similar product. The EU waste strategy distinguishes between: reuse meant as a material reuse without any structural changes in materials; recycling meant as a material recycling, only, and with a reference to structural changes in products; and recovery meant as an energy recovery only.
3 - The reprocessing of by-products, wastes and residues, either into the same material (closed-loop recycling) or a different material (open-loop recycling).

Recycled aggregates
Aggregates obtained from recycling of construction and demolition waste. The “% Recycled” is calculated as the % of available C&D materials that are suitable for recycling.
1 – Aggregate derived from both construction waste, for example damaged bricks, and demolition waste, such as broken concrete, brickwork and masonry.
3 – Aggregate resulting from the processing of inorganic material previously used in construction

The creation of landforms, land productivity and land uses that are compatible with existing land uses in the surrounding area.

27 – The quantity of a mineral commodity found in subsurface resources, which are both known as profitable to exploit with existing technology, prices and other conditions

Reserve base
27 – A related measure to reserves which is slightly larger than reserves.

27 – A concentration of a mineral commodity of which the location, grade, quality and quantity are known or estimated from specific geologic evidence.

Resource base
27 – all of mineral commodity contained in Earth’s crust.

Resource efficiency
20 - A practice in which the primary consideration of material use begins with the concept of "Reduce - Reuse - Recycle - Repair" stated in descending order of priority.

22 - Returning the land used in quarrying to some previously agreed purpose. This may be for use by landfill, agriculture, and wildlife or as a new public amenity such as parkland or water area.

22 - The use of unwanted materials in another application without significant additional processing. It also applies to reuse of water in quarry plant.

The re-establishment of self-sustaining plant cover on a disturbed site.


Unconsolidated materials that are primarily composed of coarse, medium and fine mineral particles 4.76 mm (#4 sieve) to 0.074 mm (#200 sieve) in diameter.

SARM Sustainable aggregates resource management
Sustainable aggregates resource management is efficient, low socio-environmental impact quarrying and waste management.

Secondary aggregates
1 - Aggregate which originates as a waste of [other quarrying and] mining operations, or from industrial processes (e.g. colliery waste or mine stone, blast furnace slag, power station ash, china clay sand, slate waste , demolition/construction wastes including road planning’s ), but excluding chalk and clay/shale worked primarily for aggregate purposes.

Social license to operate
29 - The social license to operate is outside of the government or legally-granted right to operate a business. A company can only gain a social license to operate through the broad acceptance of its activities by society or the local community. Without this approval, a business may not be able to carry on its activities without incurring serious delays and costs.

SSM – Sustainable supply mix
Sustainable supply mix uses multiple sources, including recycled wastes and industrial by-products (slag) that together maximize net benefits of aggregate supply across generations.

1 - Any public or private party (individual, group or agency) with an interest in or who could be affected by a piece of land or the proposed activities connected to any development of that land.

13 - Total amount of a product (good or service) available for purchase at any specified price. It is determined by: price, cost of inputs,and the price of other goods, and other variables.

Supply chain
13 - Entire network of entities, directly or indirectly interlinked and interdependent in serving the same consumer or customer. It comprises of vendors that supply raw material, producers who convert the material into products, warehouses that store, distribution centers that deliver to the retailers, and retailers who bring the product to the ultimate user.

Sustainable development
1 - Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.


Target group
16 - A collection of people selected and approached by some entity for a variety of purposes, including assistance, recruitment, information dissemination, marketing and research.




18 - Waste refers to materials that are not prime products (that is, products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose.

Waste disposal
9 - Processing and or removal to final resting place or transfer to a place for re-use or recovering of waste.

Waste hierarchy
23 - (a) prevention; (b) preparing for re-use; (c) recycling; (d) other recovery; and (e) disposal


The SARMa glossary was compiled after changing / adopting terms from the following glossaries

BASIC: Glossary of terms IAEG;
1 : http://www.sustainableaggregates.com/glossary/glossary_abc.htm
2 : Chapter 7- glossary: http://www.concrete.org/general/fE1-99.PDF
3 : Terminology: http://www.aggregain.org.uk/...terminology
4 : EPA http://www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/tools/cpg/pdf/rtc/gloss.pdf
5 : http://www.brett.co.uk/page.aspx?pointerID=52210ED2293E43B6A61332CAD9D182D2
6 : Appendix 1: http://www.empr.gov.bc.ca/..../A-1_Glossary.pdf
7 : http://www.pavement.com/glossary/r.html
8 : http://www.biobased.org/glossary/
9 : http://www.geodiswilson.com/en/Global_tools/Logistics_Dictionary/V/
10 : http://www.wastedirectory.net/
11 : http://www.ruralresidentialliving.com.au/introduction/glossary.html
12 : Contaminated and Hazardous Waste Site Management
13 : http://www.businessdictionary.com/
14 : http://www.allbusiness.com/4967379-1.html?spi=profb&query=management
15 : http://dictionary.reference.com/
16 : http://glossary.eea.europa.eu/
17 : http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Information_infrastructure
18 : http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm
19 : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/policy
20 : http://www.egreenideas.com/glossary.php?group=
21 : http://dictionary.babylon.com/
22 : http://www.goodquarry.com/glossary.aspx?mode=showaz&az_id=19
23 : Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on waste and repealing certain directives/
24 : Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC/
25 : http://www.teachmefinance.com/Scientific_Terms/l.html
26 : http://www.ecomii.com/dictionary/treatment
27 : Gunn, G and Paul Lusty: Meeting future global demand for minerals. British Geological Survey
28 : http://www.enotes.com/econ-encyclopedia
29 : https://www.ethicalfunds.com/en/Investor/ChangingTheWorld/AboutSRI/Pages/LearnTheLingo.aspx#s
30 : http://www.appl-ecosys.com/publications/social-license.pdf
31 : http://www.foe.org/financialsystem/FinancialReformProposals.pdf
32 : http://www.article13.com/csr/definitions-2.asp#Eco-efficiency
33 : http://www.unr.edu/mines/mlc/presentations_pub/Zyl_presentations/2000_palmSprings.pdf
34 : http://www.agof.de/glossary.194.en.html
35 : http://www.microinsuranceacademy.org/glossary
36 : http://lct.jrc.ec.europa.eu/glossary/